Are the U. S. Constitution’s laws and protections extended to wherever our government or military flies or plants the American Flag?
QCC OBJECTIVE 4 – Compares nationalism to globalism. (BST-1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 14, QBE – 54: AF / AM
4-1: Define nationalism and globalism
4-2: Give examples of historical developments that are evident of nationalism and globalism in history
4-3: Examine the relationship between ethnicity (self-determination) and nationalism
4-4: Formulate hypotheses regarding the possible consequences of the world’s move towards national self-determination, cooperation, and globalism
4-5: Appraise the forces of nationalism and globalism in the world today.
QCC OBJECTIVE 5 – Describe the role of patriotism. ethnocentrism, prejudice, and stereotyping in the world. (BST -1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 14: QBE-54. 55: AF / AM
5-3: Examine Nazism under Adolph Hitler as an example of ethnocentrism, bigotry, prejudice, stereotyping.
AF / AM: Identify causes of major ethnic conflicts in Central African Republic.
QCC OBJECTIVE 7 – Trace and analyze selected cultural. economic, political and historical patterns in pre / post World War II Europe. (BST -1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 14: QBE-53, 54, 55, 57: AF / AM
7-1: Trace in outline form historical developments in Germany, Poland, Lithuania and Russia from 1945 until the present
7 -3: Examine the nuclear arms race between the U.S. and U.S. S. R. 1948-92.
QCC OBJECTIVE 4 – Trace and analyze selected cultural, economic, political. and historical patterns in Post- World War 11. Africa. (BST-1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 14: QBE-53, 54-55, 57
9-1: Trace the developments that led to European imperialism in Africa during the late 18th and early 19th centuries
9-2: Describe decolonization struggles of selected African countries.
AF / AM: Examine the aims of the African National Congress rebellion in South Africa after 1960.
QCC OBJECTIVE 10: Trace and analyze selected cultural, economic, political and historical patterns in pre / post-World War II. Asia. (BST -1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 13, 14: QBE – 53, 54, 55, 57: AF / AM)
10-1: Locate major Asian countries on an outline map
10-3: Show how Vietnam / Korea became battlegrounds of the East – West struggle.
Post World War II Independence in East Asia
QCC OBJECTIVE 12 – Trace the nature of cooperation / conflict among major ideologies. (BST-1, 2, 3, 4, l0, 13, 14: QBE – 53, 54 – 55, 57: AF/AM)
12- 1: Define / differentiate between past conflict and present cooperation between the United States and USSR – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
12-1A C. I. S. – Commonwealth of Independent States and U. S.
12-1B – Assess current tone and nature of U. S. – Russian relations
12-2: Explain how ideologies unify people who think and feel the same way.
12-3: Examine the factors that influence political ideology.
13-2: Define balance-of-power
13-3:Define sphere of influence
1823 – Monroe Doctrine established U.S. influence over the Western Hemisphere
1898 – Spanish – American War and Roosevelt Corollary made Caribbean Sea a virtual American lake
13-4: Examine nuclear arms race between U. S. – USSR to maintain the balance of power during the Cold War struggle
13-5: Research the START I and II Arms Reduction Talks and compare those arsenals with today’s far smaller totals with maintenance levels that are strictly enforced.
AF / AM: Assess Africa’s role during the Cold War and place in the world balance of power equation with regard to economic and political competition and how it is changing.
Whose prosperity was Imperial Japan focused on in the Japan – Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere of Influence that took over most of East Asia?
Apply the concepts of nationalism, imperialism, and world domination strategies to the past ideological struggle between Western democratic capitalism and Soviet communism. Has modern Russia become a democratic, capitalistic nation similar to the U. S. or an authoritarian state practicing a form of crony and corporatist capitalism? Have students research the meaning of crony and corporatist in managing a modern economy, also inquire if state run capitalist economies are managed as effectively as more open market economies.
Finally, analyze if the relatively new interdependent world order is tempering extreme nationalism and rendering imperialism and related world domination strategies anachronistic (out of date, irrelevance).
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE #1 – The student will be able or expected to:
A- Trace and explain the development of nationalism in selected countries – Italy, Spain, England, France, Russia, Japan, China, Kenya, Ghana, Colombia
B- Recognize the effects of European colonialism and imperialism upon the historical development of China, the Balkans, Chad and Namibia.
C- Compare how the major concepts of nationalism, imperialism, and militarism promote conflict between people who think differently.
AF/AM: Assess state of development levels in Angola and Mozambique.
QCC Objective 13 – Analyze the word’s ba1ance of power with respect to economic and political competition inherent in world domination strategies to globalism. (BST- 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 13, 14: QBE-54 – 55: AF / AM)
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE #2:The student will be able or expected to:
A- Discuss Machiavelli’s principles – in terms of understanding the theorist’s concept of a unifying leader – and a Prince’s impact on nationalism
B- Identify some important princes and discuss their leadership qualities
C- Identify two important princes and discuss their historical contributions to their respective nations and the world.
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE #3: The student will be able or expected to:
A- Describe impact of world domination strategies upon relations between peoples and nations.
B- Apply the concept of sea power to England’s domination of the world in the in the19th Century. Pax Britannica was a British imposed peace on the world
C- Apply Admiral Mahan’s theory on naval power bringing about Pax Americana, a U.S. imposed peace on the world and applications during the 20th Century
D- Apply Halford Mackinder’s three rules of the Heartland Theory to Adolph Hitler and Nazi Germany’s goal to conquer Europe and the world.
1- Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland
2- Who commands the Heartland rules the World Island ( Europe, Asia, Africa)
3- Who rules the World Island commands the world.
E- Apply the Heartland Theory to Moscow’s outward thrusts (1725-1980) into Central Europe, Southwest Asia / Middle East, Africa, and Latin America
F- Identify and apply role of advanced military technologies that helped wage the great ideological struggle between the U.S. and former U.S. S. R. during the post-World War II period.
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE #4: The student will be able or expected to:
A- Be familiar with the teachings of Gandhi, specifically his principles and beliefs of non-violence.
B- Recognize that the nature of international relations is gradually changing from nations previously seeking domination over others to one of increasing cooperation between countries and growing interdependence.
tribes, ethnic group, religion, monarchy, empires, divine right, prince self-determination, nationalism, nation-state, militarism, war, geopolitics colonialism, imperialism, world domination strategy, sea power, heartland theory land power, aerospace technologies, spheres of influence, balance of power, glory military dictatorship, democracy, civilian rule, trade, cultural exchanges, globalisminterdependence, balance of power.
UN IT RESOURCES
1- Student Handout -12: Timeline of chronological events and mini-report on development ofnationalism in selected countries:
A. Italy – 1400 to present
B. Spain – 1492 to present
C. France – 1500 until present
D. England – 1500 until present
E. Germany – 1400 until present
F. Russia – Czar Peter to present
G. Japan – Samurai era to present
H. China – 1400 until present
I. Kenya – colonization period to present
J. Ghana – West African empires to present
K. Chile – Spanish colonization until present.
Student Handout #13: Preparatory reading for introducing concepts of nationalism, militarism, imperialism; a Machiavellian PRINCE as a unifying leader, and Gandhi’s ideal of non-violence.
Student Handout #14: An outline and highlights of Machiavelli’s THE PRINCE, a timeless political treatise on what traits constitute an "ideal prince” in the development of nationalism and the building of a strong state.
Student Handout #15: Student identification list of the ten most important political princes in history including evil leaders too, plus a second list of the five greatest princes of peace, truth, and socially beneficial change.
Student Handout #16: Preparatory historical reading for follow up case studies of:
A- Imperialism in China and Africa
B- The heartland theory with corresponding maps and summary questions.
Student Handout #17: Geopolitical concept development table for teaching 19th century means of imperialism and 20th century world domination strategies.
Student Handout #18: Moscow’s Outward Thrusts, 1725 to 1980, an overview of the former U. S.S. R’s apparent application of the heartland theory to the concept of land power in order to achieve world domination and make the world safe for communism.
Student Handout #19: Crossword puzzle and reinforcement exercise for Unit 4’s basic concepts and ideas.
Unit 4 should take approximately 6 to 8 class periods to complete. A surprising motivation for introducing Unit 4 is to relate the fictional tale of King Kong. Factors to consider are the oil company’s contaminating the native islander’s culture by observing their secret magic, the Kong ritual sacrifice. The natives react by attacking the intruders whose guns easily defeat them (militarism?). Alcohol and the assault of the modern world further degrade the natives whose disintegration is accelerated by the crew’s stealing King Kong – the cultural glue of their society – away to New York.
Introduce Student Handout #13: Chronological Timetable and Mini-Report of the Development of Nationalism in Selected Countries, approximately 1400 to the present (see Performance Objective #1-A for list). Divide class into nine groups, assign a country to report on to each, then provide the handouts needed to develop their timetables and mini-reports. This task should take about 1 – 2 class period or until the groups are ready to make their presentations. All time lines and mini-reports should be displayed in the room for at least one week or the unit’s duration. For extra credit, students may submit additional reports on the development of nationalism in other countries.
Next, distribute to each student a copy of Student Handout #13: Preparatory reading for
introducing a Machiavellian PRINCE as a unifying leader, and Gandhi’s Ideals on Non-Violence.
The aims of this task is to:
1. Provide historical references for grasping the unit’s important concepts
2. Describe how Italy became a nation-state and the role of a strong leader – a PRINCE – who was instrumental in the development of Italian nationalism
3. Reinforce the learning of essential concepts.
Instruct all class members to silently read the handout and fill in the blanks with the right term from their introductory list of concepts. Please assure correct responses by:
1. Afterwards going over the lesson and calling on students to identify the answers
2. Grading the task: Answers: violence, barbarians, nonviolence, interdependent, glorious, prince, nation-state, nationalism, international relations, imperialism, empires.
Follow with Student Handout #14 –If feasible, have students actually read Machiavelli’s classic work, submit short book reports on it, and then be prepared to recognize and discuss the political discourse’s important points in class. If not, use the outline and guiding questions to teach:
1. The qualities and role of an ideal prince
2. Examples of great princes in history
3. How exceptional leaders unify their people in the building of strong states.
Machiavelli’s real 1ife model was first Caesar Borgia, then later Lorenzo de Medici, a Florence banker and patron of the arts similar to the late Nelson Rockefeller, the former governor of New York and Vice-President under Gerald Ford.
The objective of Student Handout #14 is to identify and list the ten most important princes in history, including warlike and evil ones too. The aim is to help students apply Machiavelli’s profile for recognizing great leaders. Higher levels of thinking such as analysis and evaluation are necessary to distinguish an elite ten out of perhaps dozens of historical figures. With regards to self-actualization, a secondary list of the five most significant princes of peace, truth, and socially beneficial change should follow. Any "top ten" list may include powerful figures such as Alexander the Great, Cyrus the Great, several Roman Caesars (Julius, Augustus), Czar Peter the Great, Louis IV, Henry VIII,
Are America’s fifty governors sub-princes? Can business leaders be princes, for example, John D. Rockefeller, William Randolph Hearst, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates or Warren Buffet?
Other historical examples are Germany’s Bismarck, Winston Churchill, T. L. Lawrence, Charlemagne, Charles de Gaulle, Simon Bolivar, Spain’s Ferdinand and Isabella, Egypt’s Gamal Abdul Nasser and Anwar Sadat, Israel’s David Ben Gurion and Menachem Begin, and many others.
Warlike, evil, and so-called "princes of darkness" to be considered are Attila the Hun, Mongols Genghis Khan and Tamerlane, Hitler, Stalin, Napoleon, Mussolini, Admiral Tojo, Pol Pot, ldi Amin, and many other mass murderers and countless petty tyrants.
The American presidents who may qualify as prince are George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt, Andrew Jackson, Woodrow Wilson, and Harry Truman. Richard Nixon, maybe the most Machiavellian of U. S. political leaders, diminished his prince-like stature with his Watergate-related fall from grace. John Kennedy’s assassination probably blunted his place in history too.
Key questions: Did Jimmy Carter’s restraint in using force against Iran make him look like a weak prince? Was Ronald Reagan a prince? Did George Bush 41, Bill Clinton, or George Bush 43 have the right stuff? Apparently Michael Dukakis, Bob Dole, Al Gore , John Kerry, and John McCain did not? Other important U.S. historical figures who might qualify are Alexander Hamilton, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, and Confederate leaders Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee.
Significant communist princes were theoretician Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Cuban leader Fidel Castro, Argentine revolutionary Che Guevara, Vietnam’s Ho Chi Minh, Chinese leaders Mao Zedong, Chou En Lai, and Deng Hsiao Peng. African leaders such as Nelson Mandela and Tanzania’s Julius Nyerere have held socialist beliefs yet Mandela did not greatly interfere in the private marketplace. Nyerere at first did nationalize markets, then pulled back when he saw how his policies were making his poor country much poorer.
1. Was Michael Gorbachev or Boris Yeltsin the prince who set Russia on course to become a relatively normal country?
2. Was Mao Zedong a great prince who centralized Chinese government authority or one of the worst mass murderers of all time – an estimated 30 to 80 million people?
Some female leaders (princesses?) to be considered are Joan of Arc, Queen Victoria, Margaret Thatcher, Indira Gandhi and Golda Meir. What, if any, limitations are placed on America’s First Ladies? Might Hillary Clinton become the first U. S. prince(ess)?
Any list of important religious princes may include Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Mohammed, Confucius, perhaps several popes, Martin Luther and John Calvin, Sir Thomas More, Mormon leaders Joseph Smith and Brigham Young, Mahatma Gandhi, and the late Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Mormon Faith is an American form of Christianity.
Key questions: Was the late Malcolm X a prince? Or the Zionist leader Theodore Herzl who urged Jews to return to Palestine to recreate ancient Israel? What about the late Ayatollah Khomeini who facilitated the Iranian Revolution of 1979? Might Yasser Arafat have qualified if he had made peace with Israel and established a State of Palestine instead of refusing the deal and dying shortly after?
Some princes of truth and social change might include Mother Theresa, former Polish President Lech Walesa, Pope John Paul II, the late former Czech President Vaclav Havel, Soviet dissident physicist Andrei Sakharov, Robert Kennedy, and Barry Goldwater.
Key questions: What about the late Beatle John Lennon? Can influential or cult literary figures such as Jean Paul Sartre (French existentialist philosopher), revolutionary essayist Thomas Paine, or the late conservative writer William F. Buckley be princes? Do any influential TV news anchorpersons or print journalists come to mind?
Student Handout #16: Preparatory historical reading for case studies of imperialism in China and the Heartland Theory with corresponding maps and summary questions are the next lessons. Students will read case studies of how the imperialistic European powers and America carved up China into spheres of influence and Africa too. Next discuss U. S. Admiral Alfred Mahan’s theory that the deve1opment of sea or naval power was necessary for a maritime nation such as America to become a rich and powerful country.
World domination strategies like the Heartland Theory and how it influenced Hitler’s generals are also covered. Similar to #13, students are again expected to silently read the handout, then fill in the b1anks. Answers: geopolitics, imperialism, sea power, sphere of influence, heartland theory, world island, nationalism, imperialism, world domination.
Two map 1essons, IMPERIALISM IN CHINA and HEARTLAND, each with conceptual maps and related thought questions, show how a weak China, and Asia in general, were carved up into spheres of influence by Britain, Germany, Russia, Japan, Portugal, France, and the U. S. A. Upon completion, repeat this treatment with respect to European imperialism in Africa by using the corresponding Unit 1 outline map.
HEARTLAND describes how the intensely nationalistic and militaristic Nazi Germany employed its world domination strategy by attempting to conquer Central Europe, Eurasia’s southern interior belt – the heartland. Northern Africa was also invaded in a vain effort to control the World Island. Use as a map lesson in class, or for homework, as a prelude to introducing the next handout, or both.
Student Handout #17: Geopolitical concept development table for teaching 19th and 20th Century means of imperialism and world domination strategies depicts the linkage between exclusive military technologies, geography, politics, and imperialism.
Examples: In the late 19th century, Eng1and’s naval power gave it the means to dominate
seaborne commerce and subsequently build a global empire. In the early 20th century, the development of tanks, trucks, and airplanes made armies mobile – land power – and thus able to control vast territories (heartland theory, world island).
In the 21st Century, aerospace technologies –inter-ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads, spy satellites, missile defense systems – have replaced land and sea power as primary offensive threats. The militarization of the heavens with hi-tech weapons – defensive missiles, laser beams, rail guns – placed in orbit, might yield planetary dominance to the winner of such an arms race.
Key discussion question: Should the U. S. permanently cease with deployment of the Strategic Defense Initiative (protective space shield) now that we and Russia have almost freed ourselves from the M. A. D. – Mutually Assured Destruction, balance of terror – policies of 1945 – 1992? Should America and Russia completely eliminate all nuclear weapons systems? Speculate on clear and present dangers to the U. S. that might require deployment of armaments in space? The geopolitical concept table is a concise and handy means of presenting Unit 4’s important points and for preparing students for evaluation.
Student Handout #18 – "Moscow’s Outward Thrusts, 1725 – 1980" is an adaptation of an article by Norman B. Hannah. National Review, Sept. 6, 1980. This series of vignettes describes Russia’s annexing of seventeen countries on its frontier from 1725 through the invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. Russia’s geographical location, the past continual expansion of its borders, and the Brezhnev Doctrine – Soviet socialism, once installed, was irreversible – caused many observers to believe that Moscow was seeking world
domination. The communist takeovers of Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Angola, Mozambique, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and Nicaragua during the l 970’s did little to allay those fears.
The Russians countered that their presence on a defenseless plain made them an inviting target for invaders smashing at them from both East and West. And it is true that the conquering Asian Mongols and Tartars ruthlessly destroyed Russian cities. Indeed, the Swedish, French, and German invasions did not make the Russians feel any more secure about Western Europe. The Russians brutal history was the main reason why the Dukes of Muscovy began expanding frontiers to the south and east, their intent being the creation of buffer states in which to await and meet foes far from major population centers.
Russia’s vulnerability later haunted the new Bolshevik leaders too. In 1919, the surrounding capitalist nations, viewing the communist revolution as a grave threat, invaded the new USSR but failed to defeat the Red Army and withdrew in 1921. Thus encircled by up to sixteen perceived enemies and fearing that the world would never be safe for communism until a one-world system of Soviet (models) was installed. Lenin, Trotsky, and later Stalin began aiding and sponsoring communist insurgencies around the globe. In their own case, the Heartland Theory afforded a logical extension of communist aims and ideology – to dominate the world island, isolate America from its allies and trading partners, and extend their sphere of influence over the entire planet.
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 was designed to put pressure on India, Pakistan, Iran and Persian Gulf sheikdoms. President Jimmy Carter responded with the Carter Doctrine that was designed to protect the Persian Gulf nations from the Soviets.
But the invasion of Afghanistan bogged down into a Vietnam-type quagmire as 60,000 Mujahedeen – Muslim Holy Warriors – armed with U. S. made Stinger missiles, bled the Soviets until they withdrew their 115,000 men in 1988. Russia’s hopes of finally possessing a warm water port died along with 11,000 of her soldiers. Furthermore, the Soviet’s conquests were all financially destitute and uniformly caught up in endless, costly civil wars.
President Reagan responded to Soviet adventurism by drafting the Reagan Doctrine that aimed to roll back communism by sponsoring targeted, pro-capitalist insurgencies to intensify pressure on Russia’s stagnating economy. The USSR began suffering from imperial overstretch that was rendering it economically inert and overextended. The last Soviet Premier, Michael Gorbachev, came to power with the heralded reforms of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (economic restructuring) to grow the economy again.
The relaxing of the Stalinist boot jack grip produced a feared internal roll back of communism too – secessionist declarations and movements in the captive republics, and the gradual installation of a democratic political system and market economy in Russia too. The reforms took root and long ago progressed to the point of irreversibility.
Gorbachev’s own indecision led to Boris Yeltsin’s replacing him. As a result, U. S. – Soviet relations evolved from cold war status – overt hostility short of military engagement – to détente’ – relaxed friendly relations – to almost friendship. Russia has been integrating its economy with the capitalist nations for two decades, the ruble is an important trading currency, a market economy is becoming well developed, and Russia is hosting the 2014 Winter Olympics at Sochi.
Furnish the class with background of Russia’s bloody history of 26,000,000 dead in World War II before introducing Moscow’s Outward Thrusts (handout #18). Use a wall map to show how geography influenced Russian society and its place in the world. Compare past Soviet intentions with present Russian behavior.
1. Why did the Russians fully abandon Marxism-Leninism, class warfare, and the Brezhnev Doctrine?
2. Has Russia become a normal country yet? If not, are President Putin’s occasional provocations cause for concern or is just for domestic political consumption?
3. Are the Russians, by ironically adapting capitalism, more likely to realize their goal of living in a unified world than through further adherence to Marxist-Leninist dogma? Why?
There are common historical, geographical, and political threads running through handouts #16 and #18. While they have been arranged to maximize conceptual
understanding, it is up to each classroom teacher to draw the related facts together. In handout #16, teaching the Nazi’s application of terror and the heartland theory should culminate with comparisons to post-WW II Soviet geopolitical aims. The Geopolitical Concept Development Table (handout #17) is a tool to link related notions and behaviors. The theme of handout #18 is that creation of the Soviet empire was not an accident of fate, history, or geography. More accurately, the subjugation of 17 republics, 39 national peoples, and 107 ethnic groups was achieved through a ca1cu1us of applied terror, intimidation, aggression, and opportunistic takeovers.
Handouts # 16-18 foster a learning bridge to the two main UNIT 5 concepts, Appeasement and Collective Security arrangements. The lesson of Munich was that perceived weakness will not deter an aggressor. Collective security arrangements were constructed to contain post-WW II Soviet expansionism, and resolve regional conflicts before they could explode into global affairs.
Student Handout# 19: Crossword Puzzle and main reinforcement exercise Unit 4’S basic concepts and ideas are particularly helpful to slower learners as a fun culmination lesson and preparation for the far more challenging follow-up evaluative experience.
Unit 6 examines major world societal models – U. S., China, India, Japan, Germany and Russia. It is recommended that evaluation take place upon conclusion of Unit 6. A test with both short answer items and essays are provided.
All units were carefully developed and linked in a concept-based manner: geographical literacy > historical trends > human and cultural development > national / international development > past / present international relations instruments. This aim is to build on foundations for individual student ability to understand more complex subjects later on.
For example, Unit 7 focuses on the ways and means of nations engaging in international trade. Unit 8, a survey of Middle East crisis’, the focus is on the Israel – Palestinian Arab dispute, the intractable crisis, and the continuing Arab Spring revolutions
Instructors, of course, are the best judge of their class· ability levels and should break for testing at signs of student difficulty in absorbing further inputs of information. Teachers should feel free to modify accompanying tests to meet the varying needs of their students and classes. Many educators share the belief that a good test is one from which the student will hopefully emerge from the evaluative experience with a deeper understanding of the material covered than before sitting down to take it.
Time line / Mini-Report On The Development of Nationalism in Selected Countries NATION:________________________
DIRECTIONS: Write a 1-2 page report on the development of NATIONALISM 1400 – present in the country you selected. Staple additional sheets of paper to this form as you need them.
Student Handout #13:
Preparatory reading for introducing the concepts of nationalism, militarism, and imperialism; a Machiavellian prince as a unifying 1eader, and Gandhi’s ideal of non-violence. DIRECTIONS: Read the following composition and fill in the blanks with the correct answer (concept).
Mahatma Gandhi has said that ______________ is the policy of ___________________ and _______________ the po1icy of men. The Roman Empire was destroyed by barbarians around 500 A. D. and the Italian people suffered division and civil disorder for more than a thousand years. At times, citizens looked to one tyrant who wou1d protect them from many lesser ones.
The world was certainly not ______________________in medieval times. In fact, relations between nations were often warlike in order to increase power or gain domination over others. Trade was limited, democracy non-existent, while empire building was considered glorious. Of course, it wasn’t so _______________if it was your country the invader was tearing up.
In 1500, Ita1y was crushed by foreign powers and divided into five city- states. In his despair, Nicholas Machiavelli fantasized of an ideal ____________ who would unite Italy into a strong ________________. This idea is the beginning of ______________.
Unfortunate1y, since no prince actually existed, Machiavelli theorized that a strong nation like France should be enlisted to drive all the other invaders out of Italy. Poor Machiavelli, however, failed to consider who would drive the French out if they decided to stay – which they did by the way.
This was more or less the nature of ——————————— until modern times. Even in the twentieth century, we have experienced two world wars caused by ultra-nationalism and ___________________(empire building).
For example, the U. S. has been involved in eight wars and several hundred police actions since only 1898. The recent development of _____________________________is forcing nations to reevaluate their past policies of seeking domination and to begin stressing cooperation and trade.
Sadly, Machiavelli’s prince did not materialize to help Italy to become a ___________.
In fact, it was not until the 1860’s when the patriots Mazzini and Garibaldi sparked the unification of the city-states into the country of Italy. Modern Germany also was created shortly after as _______________________swept Europe.
The Europeans intense love of their countries and cultures inspired them to build empires by dominating the less developed peoples of Africa, Asia, and the Arab world. Such European territorial rivalries played significant roles in causing World Wars I and 11.
In the last 65 – 70 years, ____________________has swept Africa, Asia, and the Arab world. The United Nations has grown from thirty nations at its inception to more than 200 presently. Will some of these new nation – states seek to become ______ as their wealth and power increases?
One recent example was lraq and Saddam Hussein’s plundering and annexation of neighboring Kuwait. Iraq’s glory was short-lived, however, as the United Nations Security Council demanded that Iraq withdraw. When Saddam Hussein refused, the U. S. and allied forces from 26 nations freed Kuwait. We will learn more about this concept of collective security and the role of the United Nations in Unit 5.
Peoples and countries that become dependent on others for goods or services are less likely to resort to war. Trade and cooperation tend to promote trust and friendship which, in turn, fuels economic growth and human progress. These simple truths are the basis of inter-dependence. They are also painful lessons learned from the history of war.
Student Handout #14:
Nicholo Machiavelli – Biography
SOURCE: Penguin Classic, 1964, Translator – George Bull, Editors – Robert Baldick and Betty Radice.
Nicholo Machiavelli was born in Florence in 1469 of an old citizen family. Little is known about his life until 1498, when he was appointed Secretary and Second Chancellor to the Florentine Republic. During his time of office his journeys included missions to Louis XII and to the Emperor Maximillan; he was with Cesar Borgia in the Romagna; and after watching the Papal election of 1503 he accompanied Julius II on his first campaign of conquest. In 1507, as chancellor of the newly appointed Nova di Militia, he organized an infantry force which fought at the capture of Pisa in 1509. Three years later he was defeated by the Holy League at Prato, the Medici returned to Florence, and Machiavelli was excluded from public life. After suffering imprisonment and torture, he retired to his farm near San Casciano, where he lived with his wife and six children and gave his time to study and writing. In 1520, Cardinal Guillo de’ Medici secured him a commission to write a history of Florence, which he finished in 1525. After a brief return to public life, he died in 1527. His works include The Prince; and The Discourses on the First Decade of Livy, The Art of War , and the comedy, Mandragola, a satire on seduction.
1. The Prince
A. Identifies traits that supposedly offer high quality leadership skills
2. Italy in 1469:
A. Crushed by rival ambitions of France, Spain, Austria – Hungary
B. Corrupt Renaissance Popes in Rome survived through shifting alliances with or against the French or Spanish and the mini-states
3. Machiavelli held cultural view of Italy rather than nationalistic one
A. Was conscious of Italy’s weakness and ashamed of it
B. Dreamt of freedom which first required internal unity to centralize power
4. Machiavelli’s plan to spark Italian nationalism:
A. He warns Florence’s elite to form a strong militia.
B. He tries and fails to enlist Lorenzo de Medici, a rich respected banker and patron of the arts, to be the Prince.
1. Florence should take the lead in uniting the divided city-states.
2. Lorenzo preferred commerce and Papal intrigues.
3. The militia eventually failed anyway and Machiavelli retired to write his
prophetic treatise on how strong leaders behave.
6. Four types of principalities
A. Hereditary prince compared to a new one:
1. The established prince has less difficulty in uniting subjects to combat invaders.
2. A new prince must be prepared to hurt those who made ruler.
a. Prince can never satisfy new nor old friends.
b. One can destroy old royal line but must not change customs.
c. When conquering subjects, establish settlements and colonize.
d. Armed forces are expensive and shaky while settlements only hurt a few.
B. Five rules of invasion.
1. Do not destroy weaker powers
2. Increase strength of another already powerful in area
3. Do not bring a powerful foreigner into the area – hurts prestige
4. Go to invasion area
5. Generally do not postpone war and thus upset plan.
1. Must limit power of church.
2. Must thwart development of another prince or ruin self.
3. To defeat a ruler with all servants is hard, but easy to govern after wards; however, a ruler with many princes under him is easier to beat, but harder to govern
4. When conquering subjects used to freedom, destroy principality or live there
5. Self-imposed prince must crush old leader, ideas and institutions.
D. Great rulers / leaders according to Machiavelli
1. Moses – followed God’s will.
2. Cyrus – found lean tough Persians restless under Mede’s rule
3. Romulus – made tough by being left to die.
4. Theseus – found Athenians dispersed.
E. Methods of coming to power.
1. Armed prophets can make people believe anew by force only if
they have stopped believing before hand
2. Some who come to power easily must consolidate quickly or resist failure
3. One who comes to power by crime will never win glory – same with deceit
4. Those by fortune or arms must take military and local powers into confidence or destroy them
a. Violence should be inflicted once and everywhere
b. If done again, sign of weakness begins to appear
c. If repeated, will have to be applied regularly
5. Constitutional principality – prince is elected to power
a. This is a dependent prince who must be honored or loved
b. Independent prince does not need to have friendship of people
Student Handout #15:
Student identification list of the TEN most important political PRINCES in history including evil leaders too, plus a second list of the FIVE greatest PRINCES of peace, truth, and socially beneficial change.
TEN MOST IMPORTANT POLITICAL PRINCES IN HISTORV
FIVE GREATEST PRINCES OF PEACE. TRUTH. ANO SOCIALLY BENEFICIAL CHANGE
Student Handout #16:
Preparatory historical reading for case studies of Imperialism in China and the
Heartland Theory with corresponding illustrative maps and summary questions.
DIRECTIONS: Read the following historical examples and fill in the blank with the correct answer (term / concept).
In the 1890’s, an American Naval Admiral named Alfred Mahan urged the U.S. to build a great navy. Mahan’s objective was the U. S. could influence world politics by controlling the world’s oceans. This idea is part of the concept of geo- ______________.
Mahan also wanted greater leverage on European _________________________________ _
Sea power had transformed Great Britain, a relatively small island nation into the most powerful empire on earth.
England was so audacious that in 1842, her gunships forced a Chinese surrender. The British then marketed an opium addiction on the Chinese people.
Until this incident, the Chinese government had tried valiantly to halt the spread of opium smoking and its efforts were starting to pay off. This was accomplished by mass execution.
As you can imagine, the Chinese method of addiction control was costing the English a lot of customers, and apparently a great deal of money too. Great Britain’s gunships
bombarded Chinese coastal cities until they gave in. Opium addiction became rampant again. China became weak and other European powers began carving it up in to _____________________________________. Newly imperialistic America declared China to be an Open Door and followed suit.
Foreign domination eventually caused Chinese _____________________ to flare and they drove out the imperial powers shortly before the outbreak of World War I. Britain’s former drug dealing colony has grown into Hong Kong, one of the biggest banking centers in the world. Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997 – the agreement to not change the social system for fifty years has been mostly honored.
Opium addiction was again eliminated right after the 1949 communist revolution. Guess how?
Adolph Hitler’s Nazi Party came to power with the intent of spreading fascism around the globe. His generals put forth a _______________________________ that the nation that controls Eastern Europe would then be able to control the heartland of Asia, then the
________ __________ (Eurasia & Africa) and, in turn, dominate the entire world. The Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Russia; took over Western Europe, and attempted to control North Africa. It took the combined power of the Europeans allied forces, the U. S., and Russia to defeat the Nazi juggernaut.
After World War II, the Russians took control of Central Europe. They also aided successful communist revolutions in China, North Korea, and North Vietnam. The world split into bi-polar _____________ __ ______________ ; allied western democracies trying to contain communism. Since 1945, America’s relations with the communist alternated between Cold War (overt hostility short of military action) tactics to Hot War (actual fighting in North Korea 1950 – 53, Vietnam (1961 – 1975) to Détente’ (relaxation of tensions, friendly relations) to waiting for the last few remnants (Cuba, North Korea) to crumble.
For a brief period in the mid-1970’s, the U. S. and USSR enjoyed détente’. In the late 1970’s, relations deteriorated into a semi-cold war stance due to destabilizing acts by the Russians in Afghanistan and Africa. Find Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Angola and Mozambique on a map and question their importance to the Russians, who were presumably, employing a world domination strategy.
America’s arming Afghani rebels throughout the 1980’s prevented the Russians from gaining total control of the mountainous country. After the 1988 Geneva Accords, the USSR withdrew all of its forces within the year, a sign that they had abandoned the 1968 Brezhnev Doctrine – Communism, once installed in a country, is irreversible and the USSR will spare no resources in holding on to past acquisitions.
By 1991, the Soviet economy had become so depressed that the Kremlin renounced Leninism, and dissolved its empire to form the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.). The Russians ceased promoting class struggle through world revolution and embraced market economics and democracy. On July 8, 1992, the U. S., Japan, Germany, France, England, Canada and Italy began financing the economic and political transformation of Russia.
Only time will tell if:
1. The world is truly experiencing a historic shift away from great powers pursuing world
2. Economic power has become more important than military power
3. Bi-polar spheres of influence have evolved in to multi-polar regional arrangements
Discussion / Summary / Review Questions:
l. Has the U. S. A. lost its world economic leadership position and declined? If so, why?
2. Why did Russia abandon communism and embrace market economics, democratic principles, and interdependence?
3. Can the European Economic Community, under great economic stress, unify politically and militarily and become a continental superpower? If so, how? If not, why?
4. Can economically weakened Japan rebound and become a true superpower with military forces that are small and essentially defensive in nature ( 1 % of G. N. P.)?
5. Is China, now the second largest economy, already a super-power?
6. Are the U. S. and China on an eventual collision course or are the two economies so intertwined that we will always work problems out diplomatically?
Student Handout #16:
Directions: Study the map describing Imperialism in China and answer the following related questions.
1. Which was the first foreign power to take over a part of China? Why?
2. Identify the border area it colonized and the other location it later controlled?
3. Where was Germany’s sphere of influence?
4. Which country declared China to be an Open Door? Where did this country carve out its sphere of influence?
5. Which countries on China’s southern border were colonized by the French?
6. Which of China’s border areas did Japan seize? Why and how?
7. Locate / research / discuss the following European nation’s sphere of influence in Africa and the modern countries they colonized: England, France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Spain, and the Dutch.
Student Handout #16: Case Study: German Nationalism and Militarism
During the 1920’s and 1930’s, a German general influenced Adolph Hitler deeply. The General said that the nation that controlled Eastern Europe would then be able to control the Heartland of Asia.
Since Africa was colonized by western Europeans, it would collapse upon invasion and command of the World Island would fall under German domination. These theories were part of the study known as geo-politics – basing government policy on geographical factors.
1. Examine the world map to locate the countries making up Eastern Europe and
the heartland of Asia. Trace Nazi aggression patterns during World War II and
describe how they coincide with the theory.
2. Is the heartland theory still valid in this age of spy satellites and drones? Why?
3. Has the transformation of Russia and increasing global cooperation rendered all world domination strategies irrelevant?
4. Is economic domination feasible? Make case for your view.
Student Handout #17: Geopolitical Concept Development Table
AIM: To describe 19th/20th century means of imperialism / world domination strategies.
Ultimate Goal: To control world
To control world
To control world
through seaborne commerce and power.
through land military power.
by inter-ballistic weaponry.
missiles and space
Student Handout #18: Moscow’s Outward Thrusts, 1725 – 1980
AIM: To analyze and determine if the former U.S. S. R. applied the heartland
theory in a 70 year long quest to achieve world domination.
Directions: Read the following vignettes of Russian strategy towards Central Asia. Keep in mind that:
1. Marxist ideology proclaimed a global class struggle until a one-world system of Soviets ( socialist models) was realized
2. Each outward thrust or Soviet declaration reflected some measure of applying the heartland theory. Answer the related questions after reading the vignettes.
1725 – Czar Peter the Great: "To approach as near as possible to Constantinople and India. Whoever governs there will be the true sovereign of the world.
Consequently, excite continual wars, not only in Turkey, but in Persia …………. .
Establish dockyards on the Black Sea, seize little pieces near this sea ………………. .
And in the decadence of Persia (Iran), penetrate as far as the Persian Gulf.
1864 – Prince Gorchakov, Russian Chancellor: "The position of Russia in Central Asia is that of all civilized states which come into contact with half savage tribes … Retreat is ascribed to weakness so the state must plunge 1nto their depths … A line of forts should be placed to facilitate colonization which might end in limitless expansion of our empire
1907 – Russia signed an Anglo-Russian Convent which recognized the neutrality of Tibet
and Afghanistan and delineated Russian – British spheres of interest in Iran
1922 – V. I. Lenin: ‘The road from Moscow to Paris and London leads through Peking and Africa."
1940 – Vyacheslav Molotov, Foreign Minister of the U. S. S. R. – Written protocol to the Hitler – Stalin Pact of 1939: "The Soviet Union declares that its territorial aspirations center south of the national territory of the Soviet Union in the direction of the Indian Ocean."
1942 – Treaty between the Soviet Union, Iran, and Great Britain: "The forces of the Allied Powers shall be withdrawn from Iranian territory not later than six months after all hostilities (have ended) between the Allied Powers and Germany and her associates."
1946 – May: Twelve months after the end of hostilities with Germany, the
U. S. S. R. finally withdrew its forces from northern Iran, but only under great pressure from the U. S., U. K., and the U. N., and then only after creating two puppet separatist regimes in Azerbaijan and Kurdistan .
December: Collapse of both puppet regimes.
1955 – Kabul, Afghanistan: Following an agreement with Khrushchev and Bulganin, the streets of Kabul were paved and the U. S.S. R. began providing military aid to Afghanistan.
1978 – April: Communists and Russian trained Afghan officers overthrew theAfghan government, killing its leaders. September: U.S. S. R. President Brezhnev toasting the new communist Afghan President Taraki at a dinner in Moscow: "We proclaim that the Afghan revolution is a continuation of the Soviet revolution."
1979 – December: Afghan rebel forces were close to overthrowing the new Soviet puppet regime causing the Russians to prop it up with 115,000 soldiers. President Taraki announced; "Russian forces have come to protect the Afghan Revolution."
1980 – Boris Pomomarev; Communist theoretician, extended the Brezhnev Doctrine of the irreversibility of Communism in Eastern Europe to include Afghanistan: "Sympathy with fighters for true freedom is natural for Marxists, Leninists, and Internationalists … Where such forces are struggling they have the right to depend on our solidarity and support."
In 1988, U. S. S. R. President Gorbachev admitted that the Russians had failed to achieve their objectives in Afghanistan and began withdrawing their 115,000 man invasion force. The Russians had suffered 11,000 deaths and three times as many casualties. The Russian government later sent its most advanced fighter jets and heavy bombers to help the weak Afghan regime survive on its own. The Soviets’ hopes that the rebels were too disunited to defeat and overthrow President Najibullah’s regime and would have to accept a joint government were dashed in April of 1992. The seven rebel groups installed a secular government that would respect Islamic responsibilities. A fundamentalist element refused to participate, struggles against the others, and a terrible civil war raged on until the Taliban take over.
1. The vignettes illustrated that since the day of Czar Peter the Great, the Russian leaders — Czars and commissars — relentlessly pushed their frontiers and spheres of influence south, west, and east. Why did the Russians, with 33,000 nuclear weapons and a great empire to buffer them from threats of invasion, invade Afghanistan?
2. Was the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan a sign of weakness or strength?
3. Why did the Russians abandon the Brezhnev Doctrine and cease promoting Marxian class struggle until a one-world system of Soviets was realized?
4. The Russians have quickly integrated their extraction economy with the capitalist world. Was the invasion of Afghanistan a classic case of imperial overreach and the fatal error that caused the Soviet’s downfall?
5. Are huge market shares of popular consumer items and provision of financial services in the new global economy perhaps a new world domination strategy? How?
6. Was western Germany’s industrial might the reason why many people feared reunification with eastern Germany? Has the world entered a period of relative peaceful co-existence? What do you think?
Student Handout #19: Crossword Puzzle
Directions: The aim of this exercise is to reinforce Unit 4’s basic concepts and ideas. Read the ACROSS / DOWN clues and fill in the puzzle on the following page.
1 The ________________ theory proposed for world domination
2. The concept of maintaining a large military establishment______________
3. A powerful, habit forming drug _________________
4. ___________________ leased Port Arthur to the Russians in 1898
5. The ocean separating Africa from the Eurasian heartland ____________
6. African nation was a colony called the Belgian Congo_______________
7.Mau Mau Rebellion against English rule created ____________________
1. Adolph ______________ , Nazi dictator of Germany.
2. Heartland theory> to seek world domination through _______________ power.
3. The act of exercising complete control over another country or area_________
4. The policy of extending rule or authority of an empire or nation over f foreign countries._________
5. Technique to define areas of dominance _________________
6. British protectorate since 1842, China got it back in 1997 _______________